Another way to build cognitive flexibility is to make an effort to think in … Various antiglutamatergic drugs such as Amantadine have been shown to decrease impulsive behaviors among those with Parkinson’s and those without Parkinson’s. Memantine: Individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease tend to experience reductions in cognitive flexibility. They designed a simple, yet elegant, project designed to compare the levels of cognitive complacency (laziness) of capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys with that of humans. Results suggested that the neurophysiological correlates associated with REM sleep appear to increase cognitive flexibility. Enriched environment exposure accelerates rodent driving skills. All matters regarding your health require medical supervision. You can watch videos of this and other “traditions” on the Capuchin Traditions website. Genetics / Epigenetics: Certain genetic polymorphisms may be associated with reductions in cognitive flexibility. Dreams have been described as dress rehearsals for real life, opportunities to gratify wishes, and a form of nocturnal therapy. Evidence from this report suggests that certain genetic underpinnings (or correlates) can likely decrease cognitive flexibility, but others may increase it. If we think about the rats driving … This suggests that antiglutamatergic agents (e.g. To determine whether L-Tyrosine increased cognitive flexibility, researchers recruited 22 adults and set up a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. ScienceDaily. In one study, researchers analyzed the effect of a Western diet characterized by high fat and sucrose on gut microbes, which can alter cognitive flexibility. 5 Thus, clarifying the processes that underlie cognitive inflexibility in EDs will facilitate the development of novel cognitive retraining strategies designed to target specific mechanisms that have salience to particular ED symptoms. Ingestion of L-Tyrosine tends to increase dopamine levels in the brain, and may enhance cognition (as a nootropic) while bolstering your flexibility of cognition. My business partner plays the idealist-executive role in the op, and scores very highly in cognitive flexibility on Lumosity. It is thought that sufficient dopamine and proper dopaminergic signaling promote flexibility of cognition. Note: The author of this site is not engaged in rendering professional advice or services to the individual reader. It is... 3. Perhaps the high testosterone is a direct contributing factor to reduced cognitive flexibility in certain (violence-prone) individuals. These traits are often associated with great leaders, entrepreneurs, and inventors—not bumblebees, rats, ravens, rhesus macaques, and chimpanzees (to name just a few). It had been suspected that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity would alter cognitive function and/or cognitive flexibility. Individuals with low cognitive flexibility may derive significant benefit from a meditation practice, especially mindfulness. Therefore it is important to avoid jumping to conclusions with these substances based off of preclinical trials and non-human research. While the gut may not contain as many neurons as the brain, it still contains over 100 million neurons and is rightfully considered the “second brain.”. High altitude: It appears as though altitude changes can influence cognitive flexibility. (2019) for some answers. If we think about the rats driving their cars, we can easily see how we can apply this to our own driving habits. The more you expose yourself to different people and their views, cultures, and ideas, not only does your cognitive flexibility improve, but also your moral compass on right and wrong. In a study published in 2007, researchers decided to analyze the effect of Mindfulness Meditation on cognitive flexibility and other elements of attention. Neurosurgery: A report published in 2014 suggested that removal of the “extracellular matrix” within the auditory cortex increases cognitive flexibility. Close. However, the addition of a play partner to these children with PWS led to significant improvements across these domains, suggesting that interventions promoting pretend play may “increase socioemotional understanding and cognitive flexibility while decreasing rigidity and repetitive behaviors,” the researchers wrote. Bromocriptine did not increase cognitive flexibility when sulpiride was administered pretreatment. Public Results from this study noted significant increases in cognitive flexibility as a result of the gaming tasks. What’s worse, we are highly resistant to change, refusing to adopt innovations that run counter to our existing knowledge. It is apparent that MDMA administration (at high doses) could have similar effects in humans. While the researchers didn’t specifically measure cognitive flexibility, it could be suspected that cognitive flexibility may have increased as a result of the training. While the results from this research aren’t considered definitive, there is reason to believe that abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission may impair cognitive flexibility. Rather than catching up with our primate cousins, where 100 percent of the individuals integrated the new and more resourceful tactic, 61 percent of humans never used the shortcut. A study published in 2015 analyzed the effect of MLC901 in rodents with no brain injury (e.g. In addition it is also important to consider the fact that short-term increases in cognitive flexibility as a result of treatment do not account for long-term changes. An individual who is able to switch quickly from thinking about one concept, characteristic, or perspective to another – would be said to possess a high degree of cognitive flexibility. If you are serious about increasing the speed by which you’re able to consciously alter your thinking and process multifaceted aspects of stimuli simultaneously, the techniques listed below should help. If being cognitively flexible is valuable and the majority of us are falling short in the adaptability department, is there anything we can do about it? How do we know that other species have it and demonstrate it to a higher degree? Eventually we humans caught on, right? This suggests that getting proper sleep (especially REM) could result in superior flexibility of cognitive processing. The results indicated that participants demonstrated increases in cognitive function and flexibility. A total of 16 participants were assigned to engage in a cognitive flexibility performance test with anagram word puzzles following awakenings during REM or NREM. Do you think it’s important to specifically study the mechanisms of cognitive flexibility? It is unknown specifically which hormone(s) and threshold levels are most likely to decrease cognitive flexibility, but it is still a logical possibility to consider that imbalances may have detrimental effects. I shall not be liable or responsible for any loss or damage allegedly arising from any information or suggestions within this website. Posted by 6 years ago. Further, it is important to avoid assuming that everyone taking these substances and/or drugs will experience improvements in cognitive flexibility – certain substances could theoretically increase rigidity in some individuals. Third, after the rats mastered the task, their stress levels went down. Keep in mind that all of the things that deplete cognitive flexibility are not necessarily yet known and/or documented by science. Discussion: Cognitive flexibility, shortly after trauma exposure, emerged as a significant predictor of PTSD symptom severity. A total of 18 were assigned to receive working memory training, while the remaining 18 served as a control group (receiving a placebo). There are many benefits of omega-3 fatty acid intake, specifically DHA and EPA. Archived. That said, it can be reversed following administration of a beta blocker for anxiety (propranolol). Cognitive stimulation program: A study published in 2014 suggested that using a mHealth cognitive stimulation program may increase cognitive flexibility among individuals suffering from alcohol dependence. As aging is associated with decreased cognitive functioning, the prevalence of age-related cognitive decline is an increasingly important issue. If you aren’t getting proper sleep and/or are missing the REM stage of the sleep cycle, you may have less cognitive flexibility than others. Individuals with psychiatric conditions characterized by altered dopaminergic signaling, particularly in the frontostriatal circuit may have impaired cognitive flexibility. Furthermore, it is unknown as to whether memantine elicits a sustained increase in cognitive flexibility over an extended duration. Students need explicit instruction and opportunities to practice the flexible thinking that will make the most of their brains' fertile adolescent development stage. These include things such as: epigenetic influences, altitude changes, hormone changes, neurotransmitter imbalances, high stress, and illicit drugs. MDMA: In rodent studies, it appears as though consistent administration of MDMA (ecstasy) triggers dopaminergic neurotoxicity. 61 Ways To Be Productive When You Work From Home, 4 Reasons to View Your Relationship from a New Perspective. Researchers recruited 40 adults between 65 and 75 with the APOE e4 genetic polymorphism and administered a cognitive flexibility assessment. Researchers speculate that the increased cognitive flexibility was a result of an increase in dopamine concentrations. Low serotonin: Some research has suggested that 5-HT (serotonin) plays a role in cognitive flexibility. A study published in 2014, researchers documented the effect of “simulated” hypoxia (less oxygen) at altitudes of 3600 meters. Be creative. New research indicates that certain gut microbes are associated with reduced cognitive flexibility, while others may be associated with increased cognitive flexibility. L-Tyrosine is present in a variety of foods and is known as a monoamine precursor, converting to the neurotransmitter dopamine. Introduction. Certain individuals lack cognitive flexibility, and are said to have “rigidity of thought” which usually translates to rigidity of behavior. What does this mean? Do you think that you possess a high degree of cognitive flexibility or are you a rigid thinker? It was speculated that the high MDMA decreased dopamine transporter (DAT) functionality. Cognitive flexibility was tested with anagrams and a Compound Remote Associates Test. First, learning a new skill can be stressful. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. Lactobacillales were increased in high-sucrose diets and Erysipelotrichales were altered by the high fat diet. In addition, they accounted for genetic baseline dopaminergic differences, they used the VNTR polymorphism associated with the DAT1 gene. For the study, they used a method called “ATD” (acute tryptophan depletion) in which tryptophan (a precursor to serotonin) is depleted. However, when this region is removed, the brain reconnects via different sensory pathways. The gut microbiome is becoming an increasingly popular target for psychiatric research. A study was published in 2011 investigating whether D2 receptor signaling modulated aspects of cognitive flexibility in humans. Here's the big deal. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Researchers then administered “task-set” switching assessments to determine performance. In addition to increasing cognitive flexibility, there is evidence that omega-3s enhance other mental processes. Celexa (Citalopram) vs. Lexapro (Escitalopram): Which Is Better? Feel free to share a comment discussing the importance of cognitive flexibility research. Do something you know how to do, but do it differently (and often). A study published in 2010 involved reviewing relationships between language, inner speech, and cognitive control in both adults and children – they specifically analyzed cognitive flexibility. That said, just because they increase cognitive flexibility in rodents does not necessarily translate to improvements in humans. Below are cognitive flexibility tests. 2. © 2013-2019 | Privacy Policy | Legal Notice | Affiliate Disclosure, antipsychotics are linked to brain damage, 10 Best Supplements For Antidepressant Withdrawal, L-Tyrosine Side Effects & Adverse Reactions (List), L-Tyrosine Benefits & Unestablished Claims (Scientific Research), Fish Oil Side Effects & Adverse Reactions, L-Theanine Benefits (Scientific Research), Pantoprazole (Protonix) vs. Omeprazole (Prilosec), Lexapro (Escitalopram) vs. Prozac (Fluoxetine), Pregabalin (Lyrica) vs. Gabapentin (Neurontin). A new theory aims to make sense of it all. For example, someone taking a drug like Memantine for mild forms of dementia may experience increased cognitive flexibility. People who are unable to transition their train of thought or perspective to another would be said to have “cognitive rigidity.”  Think of cognitive rigidity as being akin to a concrete sculpture that is highly resistant to change. Cognitive Flexibility, Communication Strategy, and Integrative Complexity in Groups: Public versus Private Reactions to Majority and Minority Status Deborah H Gruenfeld Northwestern University and Melissa C. Thomas-Hunt and Peter H. Kim Washington University Received: December 16, 1996; revised: September 15, 1997; accepted: December 4, 1997 Amantadine) may activate certain neural mechanisms associated with increased cognitive flexibility. A greater proportion of individuals within those species appear to have an abundance of cognitive flexibility compared to humans. This suggests that hypoxia associated with high altitude could temporarily improve cognitive flexibility. The study incorporated the usage of bromocriptine, a D2 receptor agonist and incorporated pretreatment with sulpiride, a D2 receptor antagonist. The researchers recruited 23 participants with no history of prior hypoxia experience. Authors reported decreased reward sensitivity and implied potentially increased cognitive flexibility as a result of treatment. Paradoxical Intervention and Cognitive Flexibility. Research published in 2015 supports the idea that L-Tyrosine (an essential amino acid) promotes cognitive flexibility. This is where cognitive restructuring techniques, which make up the rest of this guide, will come in handy. To avoid this, you must shake things up. Cognitive flexibility improved after stress exposure when the pharmaceutical (propranolol) was administered. Despite the fact that this was a study conducted in mice, there is reason to believe that your diet is influencing your cognitive flexibility. Due to the fact that serotonin (5-HT) influences cognitive flexibility, researchers designed a study in which they would manipulate serotonin levels and determine changes in cognitive flexibility. It appears as though when the memantine administration was discontinued, cognitive flexibility decreased. Not everyone conducts inner speech, or “silent expression of conscious thoughts to oneself in coherent linguistic form.”  That said, if you want to increase your cognitive flexibility, it may be time to start incorporating inner speech in your cognitive arsenal. There was a close relationship between cognitive flexibility and inner speech among both children and adults. Cognitive retraining interventions also can be used to help individuals accommodate areas of dysfunction, even if underlying deficits do not change. Interventions for Cognitive Flexibility. Working memory training: A study published in 2013 suggested that working memory training programs may increase cognitive flexibility. All the adults were assigned to perform a “task switching” procedure – measuring their flexibility. Actively engaging in working memory training with protocols like “Dual N-Back” should theoretically enhance cognitive flexibility due to rapid transitions in recall processing. Results from a study published in 2009 suggest that aerobic exercise is an effective way to increase cognitive flexibility. So go ahead and be comfortable with being uncomfortable. Specifically, it appears as though there is a direct relationship between cognitive flexibility and omgega-3 biomarkers. Based on animal studies, researchers speculate that flexibility of cognition is dependent upon D2 receptor signaling. In addition, you may want to include fermented foods in your diet and consider taking a high quality probiotic for maximum cognitive flexibility. Using the best fish oil or the best krill oil could provide immense benefit if your dietary intake of omega-3s is suboptimal and/or nonexistent. 1. After learning this sequence, they were presented with an alternative and significantly more efficient strategy. To determine how DAT1 influenced cognitive flexibility, researchers assigned a task-switching protocol to a sample of individuals and determined differences based on polymorphisms. When looking at other people’s cognitive distortions, they … This paper reviews the construct of cognitive flexibility, including its definition, development, measurement, and neuroanatomical basis, provides a summary of how cognitive flexibility is affected by CHD, and offers evidence-based recommendations to systematically support the development of cognitive flexibility within the context of CHD. Previous studies have found that PTSD is associated with hippocampal-related impairment in cognitive flexibility. Cognitive flexibility has been described as the mental ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts, and to think about multiple concepts simultaneously. There are many reasons a person may wish to increase their cognitive flexibility. Some, such as poking each other in the eye as a test of faith and potentially friendship, are perhaps less than spectacular, but nevertheless, avant-garde. How do we know? Meet new people. Amitriptyline (Elavil) Withdrawal Symptoms + How Long Do They Last? Alternatively, learn a new language, change jobs, or travel to a new place. In posttest, they were assessed in WCST and ADI-R. All measures of cognitive flexibility improved in posttest except for failure to maintain set. A study examining the impact of cognitive intervention for at-risk children in preschool classrooms found that children who received such intervention for one to two years significantly outperformed their peers. New evidence suggests that taking fish oil (which contains omega-3s) can increase cognitive flexibility. We randomly assigned 161 healthy Chinese working adults (55 men, 106 women, M age =32 years) to (1) attend a coping flexibility intervention for acquiring both coping skills and coping flexibility, (2) attend a cognitive-behavioural intervention for acquiring coping skills only, or (3) a waiting list to receive an intervention after the study had been completed. In the second study, the neurocognitive training group showed more improvement in cognitive flexibility post-intervention ( p = 0.019 ), and lower PTSD symptoms 6 months post-trauma ( p = 0.017 ), compared with controls. Rats are truly spectacular, whether it’s displaying an enormous capacity for empathy as I discussed in my previous post, friendship, or fairness, there seems to be no end to the lessons we can learn from rats—including how to increase and strengthen the neural basis for cognitive flexibility. Therefore, you may want to take time to consciously assess your omega-3 intake. Individuals with cognitive flexibility can adjust their thinking quickly to adapt to novel situations and stimuli. Decline of cognitive control, memory, and decision-making, among other functions, leads to greater dependence on family membe… Julia Watzek, Sarah M. Pope, Sarah F. Brosnan. These changes were monitored in individuals with first-episode schizophrenia who were treated with antipsychotics for 6 weeks and compared them with a control group. Therefore, behaviors and substances that decrease REM sleep should be avoided. It has long been suspected that genes influencing the transportation of dopamine throughout the brain may increase and/or decrease cognitive flexibility. Despite the fact that this was a small scale study, it is worth noting that altitude changes associated with lack of oxygen could trigger anxiety. Cognitive flexibility and shifting the depends on the prefrontal lobe of the brain, which is the brain structure that takes longest to mature.You may have noticed that children are prone to impatience, get upset when faced with a change in the routine, and tend to throw tantrums. Before describing the results, I should warn you that capuchin monkeys are true innovators. In addition to the aforementioned 7 techniques, there are several other methods that may increase cognitive flexibility in certain individuals. The answer? It is well-known that the brain and gut are interconnected. A study published in 2015 analyzed the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, neural activation, and APOE e4 carriers (a biomarker indicating that individuals are at risk for cognitive decline). Researchers concluded that various aspects of cognitive flexibility are modulated by D2 receptor signaling. Individuals without the 9R allele also had increases in sensory change and task-set reconfigurations. If you want to improve your ability to rapidly shift your thinking between multiple concepts, consistent aerobic exercise is an effective method. Researchers attempted to determine whether the video game training would increase cognitive flexibility, and if so, the mechanisms behind the increase. Capuchin and rhesus monkeys but not humans show cognitive flexibility in an optional-switch task. You may be wondering, what’s the big deal? A person can attain omega-3 fatty acids from a diet high in fatty fish, but most people aren’t able to consume sufficient fish for these omega-3s. The gut microbiome is becoming an increasingly popular target for psychiatric research. While it is unknown as to whether the disorder lead to poor cognitive flexibility or vice-versa, there is evidence that cognitive flexibility can be increased. The ideas, procedures, and suggestions contained within this work are not intended as a substitute for consulting with a medical doctor. No. flexibility). The unique anatomy and chemistry of this transitional state comprises increased dopamine receptors and accelerated neuroplasticity. We live in a time of great societal changes in the Western world. One of the measures included within the study was cognitive flexibility. One of the measures for this study was an attentional “set shifting” task, which allowed researchers to note cognitive flexibility. Behavioural Brain Research, p.112309. Like the rats, it’s even better if you combine mental and physical learning. This method is completely reversible, but temporarily lowers both plasma tryptophan concentrations and serotonin in the brain. It was noted that as the brain matures, the extracellular matrix decreases brain plasticity. Researchers imply that the substance may improve cognitive flexibility, and that the substance may prove therapeutic in human populations. Once again, it doesn’t have to be grand and you can combine #1 and #2 easily by discovering a part of your town you aren’t as familiar with and eating in a new restaurant. Tweak your Gut Microbes The more advanced a person was with their meditation practice, the greater their cognitive flexibility on the Stroop test. Second, once rats learned the basics, they accepted more challenges, not fewer. By comparison, cognitive flexibility would be like a pile of dough that is capable of quickly morphing into new shapes to adapt to the environment and novel stimuli. None of the past studies had specifically analyzed L-Tyrosine’s effect on cognitive flexibility. A computer-based learning experience was developed using cognitive flexibility theory to overcome the pitfalls often encountered in existing medical education. A study published in 2010 analyzed a polymorphism associated with the presence (+) or absence (-) of the 9R allele of the DAT1; a dopamine transporter gene. A 2014 study analyzed the effect of Amantadine on cognitive function, emotion, and reward processing among individuals with Parkinson’s disease. In yet another fascinating study, Crawford et al. MLC 901 (NurAiDII): This is a compound used in traditional Chinese medicine. The evidence from their study suggest that training in video games that emphasize rapid modulation of multiple information sources could increase cognitive flexibility. Cognitive flexibility is usually described as one of the executive functions. In this study, researchers used the neuropsychological intervention of mobile technology (mHealth) and compared the results with a control group. For driving, that may mean drive home a different way. (2016, May 14). The increase in cognitive flexibility was evidenced by performance in a water maze involving platform re-location. It also refers to the ability to process multiple concepts simultaneously such as the color and shape of an object or perspectives of republicans and democrats. Crawford, L.E., Knouse, L.E., Kent, M., Vavra, D., Harding, O., LeServe, D., Fox, N., Hu, X., Li, P., Glory, C. and Lambert, K.G., 2019. Results suggested that individuals receiving L-Tyrosine supplementation had increased cognitive flexibility compared to those receiving a placebo. Understand that the degree by which certain tactics increase cognitive flexibility is subject to significant individual variation. Fourth, those rats that had a richer environment with a diverse set of toys and opportunities learned faster and were better drivers. In a 2011 study, researchers analyzed changes in cognitive flexibility as a result of antipsychotic treatment. To address these needs, a variety of TBI-specific interventions have … Have you needed to run an errand that would have taken you out of your way and instead ended up at home? This study recruited 36 individuals between the ages of 75 and 87. A cognitive intervention is a form of psychological intervention, a technique and therapy practised in counselling.It describes a myriad of approaches to therapy that focus on addressing psychological distress at a cognitive level. Dysfunction of D2 signaling and low baseline dopamine may contribute to poorer cognitive flexibility. Have you ever driven home from work and arrived there not quite remembering how you got there? 2.2MB. In a study published in 2002, researchers compared the effects of REM sleep to those associated with NREM (non-REM) sleep. , targeted psychosurgery, and reduce inflammatory markers within the hippocampus private and will not be shown publicly that the. Flexibility in certain ( violence-prone ) individuals of meditators to a reward, cognitive function 22 adults and up... Up a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study is kept private and will not shown... Cells in a reversal learning the benefits of exercise including: mood boost, anxiolytic effects, it... Conditions characterized by altered dopaminergic signaling promote flexibility of cognitive flexibility theory overcome! Benefit from a new language, change jobs, or neurological conditions discussing the importance cognitive! Be the key to better cognitive-behavioral interventions mechanisms associated with information processing across neural! Estimate your own health and healthcare scientist specializing in social behavior for your own health and healthcare that intake... Predictor of PTSD symptom severity warn you that capuchin monkeys are true innovators reductions. One of the things that deplete cognitive flexibility when sulpiride was administered the cortex! That 's why he 's the executive functions in conditions of stress could be related to the working memory displayed! Sucrose intake contributing factor training in video games so, the benefits of omega-3 fatty intake. 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